Martha Nussbaum's papers, 1972-1995

"Psuchê in Heraclitus I", Phronesis 17:1, 1-16, 1972. 

"Psuchê in Heraclitus II", Phronesis 17:2, 153-70, 1972. 

Review of Aristote, Marche des animaux, Mouvement des animaux, index des traités biologiquesed. by Pierre Louis, Journal of Hellenic Studies 95, 207-08, 1975. 

"Consequences and Character in Sophocles' Philoctetes", Philosophy and Literature 1:1, 25-53, 1976. 

Review of Untersuchungen zu Gorgias' Schrift Über das Nichtseiende by Hans-Joachim Newiger,Journal of Hellenic Studies 96, 180-81, 1976. 

"The Text of Aristotle's De Motu Animalium", Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 80, 111-59, 1976. 

Review of The Meddling Gods: Four Essays on Classical Themes by Hazel Barnes, Philosophy and Literature, 1:3, 342-53, 1977. 

Review of Aristotle's Man: Speculations upon Aristotelian Anthropology by Stephen R.L. Clark,Philosophical Review 86:2, 241-44, 1977. 

Review of The Fire and the Sun: Why Plato Banished the Artists by Iris Murdoch, Philosophy and Literature 2:1, 125-26, 1978. 

"Eleatic Conventionalism and Philolaus on the Conditions of Thought", Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 83, 63-108, 1979. 

"The Speech of Alcibiades: A Reading of Plato's Symposium", Philosophy and Literature 3:2, 131-72, 1979 (revised as ch. 6 of The Fragility of Goodness). 

"Aristophanes and Socrates on Learning Practical Wisdom", Yale Classical Studies 26, 43-87, 1980.

Review of Substance, Body, and Soul: Aristotelian Investigations by Edwin Hartman, Journal of Philosophy, 77:6, 355-75, 1980. 

"Shame, Separateness, and Political Unity: Aristotle's Criticism of Plato", in Amélie Oksenberg Rorty ed., Essays on Aristotle's Ethics, University of California Press, 1980. 

Review of Der Text der aristotelischen Rhetorik by Rudolf Kassel & Aristotelis Ars Rhetorica: Text griech ed. by Rudolf Kassel, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 63:3, 346-50, 1981. 

"Aristotle", in T. James Luce ed., Ancient Writers: Greece and Rome vol. 1: Homer to Caesar, 377-416, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982. 

"'This Story Isn't True': Poetry, Goodness, and Understanding in Plato's Phaedrus", in Julius Moravcsik & Philip Temko eds., Plato on Beauty, Wisdom, and the Arts, Rowman Littlefield, 1982 (revised as ch. 7 of The Fragility of Goodness). 

"The 'Common Explanation' of Animal Motion", in Paul Moraux & J. Wiesner eds., Zweifelhaftes im Corpus Aristotelicum: Studiun zu einigen Dubia 9, Symposium Aristotelicum, de Gruyter, 1983 (revised as ch. 9 of The Fragility of Goodness). 

"Fictions of the Soul", Philosophy and Literature 7:2, 145-61, 1983 (reprinted in Nussbaum, Love's Knowledge). 

"Flawed Crystals: James's The Golden Bowl and Literature as Moral Philosophy" (reprinted in Nussbaum, Love's Knowledge) & "Reply to Richard Wollheim, Patrick Gardiner, and Hilary Putnam", New Literary History 15:1, 25-50 & 201-08, 1983. 

"Aristotelian Dualism: Reply to Harold Robinson", in Julia Annas ed., Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy vol. 2, Oxford UP, 1984. 

"Plato on Commensurability and Desire", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society supp. vol. 58, 55-80, 1984 (reprinted in Nussbaum, Love's Knowledge). 

"Aeschylus and Practical Conflict", Ethics 95:2, 233-67, 1985 (reprinted in Nussbaum, The Fragility of Goodness; shortened version in Jacques Brunschwig, Claude Imbert & Alain Roger eds.,Histoire et structure: A la mémoire de Victor Goldschmidt, Vrin, 1985). 

"Affections of the Greeks" (review of Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality vol. 2: The Use of Pleasure), New York Times Book Review November 10, 13-14, 1985. 

"Continuing the Search: Questions of Writing and Style in Classical Philosophy", Federation Review(National Federation of State Humanities Councils) March, 1985. 

"Philosophical Books vs. Philosophical Dialogue", Thinking: The Journal of Philosophy for Children6:2, 13-14, 1985. 

"'Finely Aware and Richly Responsible': Moral Attention and the Moral Task of Literature", Journal of Philosophy 82:10, 516-29 (followed by reply by Cora Diamond), 1985 (expanded as "'Finely Aware and Richly Responsible': Literature and the Moral Imagination", below). 

"Historical Conceptions of the Humanities and their Relationship to Society", in Daniel Callahan, Arthur L. Caplan & Bruce Jennings eds., Applying the Humanities, Plenum Press, 1985. 

"Plato & Affirmation Action" (letter), New York Review of Books January 31, 41, 1985. 

Review of Beyond Power: On Women, Men, and Morals by Marilyn French, Boston Globe July 21, 1985. 

"Sophistry about Conventions", New Literary History 17:1, 129-39, 1985 (reprinted in Nussbaum,Love's Knowledge). 

"The Discernment of Perception: An Aristotelian Conception of Private and Public Rationality", in John J. Cleary ed., Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy vol. 2, UP of America, 1986 (reprinted in Nussbaum, Love's Knowledge). 

"Commentary on Edmunds" (Lowell Edmunds, "Aristophanes' Socrates"), in John J. Cleary ed.,Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy vol. 2, UP of America, 1986. 

"Love and the Individual: Romantic Rightness and Platonic Aspiration", in Thomas C. Heller et al. eds., Reconstructing Individualism: Autonomy, Individuality, and the Self in Western Thought, Stanford UP, 1986 (reprinted in Nussbaum, Love's Knowledge, and in Roger E. Lamb ed., Love Analyzed, Westview 1997). 

"Miscast in Dialogue Form" (review of Iris Murdoch, Acastos), Times Literary Supplement August 15, 1986. 

"Therapeutic Arguments: Epicurus and Aristotle", in Malcolm Schofield & Gisela Striker eds., The Norms of Nature, Cambridge UP, 1986 (revised as chh. 1 & 4 of The Therapy of Desire). 

"Women's Lot" (review of Jane Roland Martin, Reclaiming Conversation), New York Review of Books January 30, 7-12, 1986. 

"Sex in the Head" (review of Roger Scruton's Sexual Desire), New York Review of BooksDecember 18, 49-52, 1986. 

"Sexual Desire: An Exchange" (of letters, with Roger Scruton over Nussbaum's review), New York Review of Books May 7, 46-47, 1987. 

"Aristotle: Dialogue with Martha Nussbaum", in Bryan Magee ed., The Great Philosophers: An Introduction to Western Philosophy (based on the BBC television series; see the televised interview), BBC Books, 1987 / Oxford UP, 1988.

"Aristote et la fragilité de la bonté", Bulletin de la Société Française de Philosophie 81:4, 117-44, 1987. 

"Commentary on Mourelatos" (Alexander P.D. Mourelatos, "Quality, Structure, and Emergence in Later Pre-Socratic Philosophy"), Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophyvol. 3, UP of America, 1987. 

"'Finely Aware and Richly Responsible': Literature and the Moral Imagination", in Anthony J. Cascardi ed., Literature and the Question of Philosophy, John Hopkins UP, 1987 (reprinted in Nussbaum, Love's Knowledge, and in Stanley G. Clarke & E. Simpson eds., Anti-Theory and Moral Conservatism, State University of New York Press, 1989). 

"Perceptive Equilibrium: Literary Theory and Ethical Theory", Logos 8, 55-83, 1987 (reprinted in Nussbaum, Love's Knowledge, and in Ralph Cohen ed., The Future of Literary Theory, Routledge, 1989). 

"The Stoics on the Extirpation of the Passions", Apeiron 20:2, 129-77, 1987 (revised as ch. 10 ofThe Therapy of Desire). 

"Talking it Through" (review of Michael C. Stokes, Plato's Socratic Conversations, Charles L. Griswold, Self-Knowledge in Plato's Phaedrus and C.J. Rowe trans., Plato, Phaedrus), Times Literary Supplement August 7, 1987. 

"Undemocratic Vistas" (review of Allan Bloom, The Closing of the American Mind), New York Review of Books November 5, 20-26, 1987. 

Martha Nussbaum & Amartya Sen, Internal Criticism and Indian Rationalist Traditions, WIDER (World Institute for Development Economic Research of the United Nations University) Working Paper 30, 1987 (reprinted in Michael Krausz ed., Relativism: Interpretation and Confrontation, University of Notre Dame Press, 1989). 

Non-Relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach, WIDER Working Paper 32, 1987. 

"Non-Relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach", in Peter A. French, Theodore E. Uehling, Jr., & Howard K. Wettstein eds., Midwest Studies in Philosophy vol. 13: Ethical Theory: Character and Virtue, University of Notre Dame Press, 1988 (revised version in Martha C. Nussbaum & Amartya Sen eds., The Quality of Life, Oxford UP, 1993, with commentary by Susan Hurley). 

Nature, Function, and Capability: Aristotle on Political Distribution, WIDER Working Pape 31, 1987 (see below). 

"Nature, Function, and Capability: Aristotle on Political Distribution" (followed by David Charles, "Perfectionism in Aristotle's Political Theory: Reply to Martha Nussbaum", to which Nussbaum replies in "Reply to David Charles"), in Julia Annas & Robert H. Grimm eds., Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy supp. vol., 1988 (reprinted in George E. McCarthy ed., Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity, Rowman & Littlefield, 1992; slightly different version in Günther Patzig ed., Aristoteles' Politik, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1990). 

"Comments on Paul Seabright" (on happiness and Henry James), Ethics 98:2, 332-40, 1988. 

"Reading for Life" (review of Wayne Booth, The Company We Keep), Yale Journal of Law and the Humanities, 1:1, 165-80, 1988 (reprinted in Nussbaum, Love's Knowledge). 

"Love's Knowledge", in Brian P. McLaughlin & Amélie Oksenberg Rorty eds., Perspectives on Self Deception, University of California Press, 1988 (reprinted in Nussbaum, Love's Knowledge). 

"Narrative Emotions: Beckett's Genealogy of Love", Ethics 98:2, 225-54, 1988 (reprinted in Nussbaum, Love's Knowledge, and in Stanley Hauerwas & L. Gregory Jones ed., Why Narrative?: Readings in Narrative Theology, Eerdmans, 1989). 

"Beyond Obsession and Disgust: Lucretius' Genealogy of Love", Apeiron 22:1, 1-59, 1989 (revised as ch. 5 of The Therapy of Desire). 

"Martha Nussbaum: Classicist and Philosopher", interview with Bill Moyers, in Bill Moyers ed., A World of Ideas: Conversations with Thoughtful Men and Women about American Life Today and the Ideas Shaping Our Future, Doubleday, 1989. 

"Mortal Immortals: Lucretius on Death and the Voice of Nature", Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:2, 303-51, 1989 (revised as ch. 6 of The Therapy of Desire). 

"Recoiling from Reason" (review of Alasdair MacIntyre, Whose Justice? Which Rationality?), New York Review of Books December 7, 36-4, 1989. 

"Reply" (to six papers on The Fragility of Goodness), Soundings 72:4, 725-81, 1990. 

"Tragic Dilemmas", Radcliffe Quarterly March, 1989. 

"Aristotelian Social Democracy", in R. Bruce Douglass, Gerald M. Mara & Henry S. Richardson eds., Liberalism and the Good, Routledge, 1990 (reprinted in Aristide Tessitore ed., Aristotle and Modern Politics: The Persistence of Political Philosophy, University of Notre Dame Press, 2002, along with "Postscript, 2001"; ed. version in Gillian Brock ed., Necessary Goods: Our Responsibilities to Meet Others' Needs, Rowman & Littlefield, 1998; also, "Aristotelian Social Democracy: Defending Universal Values in a Pluralistic World", Internationale Zeitschrift für Philosophie, 115-29, 2003). 

"The Bondage and Freedom of Eros" (review of John J. Winkler, The Constraints of Desire, and David M. Halperin, One Hundred Years of Homosexuality and Other Essays on Greek Love), Times Literary Supplement June 1, 571-73, 1990. 

"Comments" (on papers about classical philosophy and the constitution), Chicago Kent Law Review66, 213-42, 1990. 

"Introduction", in C.K. Williams trans., The Bacchae of Euripides: A New Version, Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, 1990. 

"The Misfortunate Teller" (review of Judith N. Shklar, The Faces of Injustice), New Republic203:22, 30-35, 1990. 

"Our Pasts, Ourselves" (review of Charles Taylor, Sources of the Self: The Making of Modern Identity), New Republic 202:15, 27-34, 1990. 

"Perception and Revolution: The Princess Casamassima and the Political Imagination", in George Boolos ed., Meaning and Method: Essays in Honor of Hilary Putnam, Cambridge UP, 1990. 

"With Aspiration and Desire" (review of A.W. Price, Love and Friendship in Plato and Aristotle),Times Literary Supplement February 16, 165-66, 1990. 

"The Chill of Virtue" (review of Gregory Vlastos, Socrates: Ironist and Moral Philosopher), New Republic 205:12/13, 34-40, 1991. 

"Commentary on Halperin" (David M. Halperin, "Plato and the Metaphysics of Desire"), in John J. Cleary & Daniel C. Shartin eds., Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophyvol. 5, UP of America, 1991. 

"Emotions as Judgments of Value", Yale Journal of Criticism 5:2, 201-12, 1991. 

"The Literary Imagination in Public Life", New Literary History 22:4, 877-910, 1991. 

Aristotle on Human Nature and the Foundations of Ethics (pamphlet; Kathryn Fraser MacKay lecture, 1990), St. Lawrence University, 1991 (for later version, see below).

Review of Epicurus' Ethical Theory: The Pleasures of Invulnerability by Phillip Mitsis, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 51:3, 677-87, 1991.

"Skeptic Purgatives: Therapeutic Arguments in Ancient Skepticism", Journal of the History of Philosophy 29:4, 521-57, 1991 (revised as ch. 8 of The Therapy of Desire). 

"Character", in Lawrence Becker & Charlotte Becker eds., Encyclopedia of Ethics vol. 1, Garland Publishing, 1991 / St. James Press, 1992. 

"Literature and Ethics" & "Tragedy", in Lawrence Becker & Charlotte Becker eds., Encyclopedia of Ethics vol. 2, Garland Publishing, 1991 / St. James Press, 1992. 

"The Transfigurations of Intoxication: Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, and Dionysus", Arion 1:2, 75-111, 1991 (reprinted in Salim Kemal et al. eds., Nietzsche, Philosophy, and the Arts, Cambridge UP, 1998, in Chris Janaway ed., A Cambridge Companion to Schopenhauer, Cambridge UP, 1999, and in Daniel W. Conway ed., Nietzsche: Critical Assessments vol. 1, Routledge, 1998). 

"Aristotle, Feminism, and Needs for Functioning", Texas Law Review 70:4, 1019-28, 1992 (commenary on Linda Redlick Hirshman, "The Book of 'A'"; both papers are reprinted in Cynthia Freeland ed., Feminist Interpretations of Aristotle, Pennsylvania State UP, 1998; in TLR there is a reply by Hirshman). 

"A Classic Case for Gay Studies", in Robert M. Baird & Stuart E. Rosenbaum eds., Bigotry, Prejudice and Hatred: Definitions, Causes and Solutions, Prometheus Books, 1992. 

"Human Functioning and Social Justice: In Defense of Aristotelian Essentialism", Political Theory20:2, 202-46, 1992 (shorter version in Modern Philology 90 supplement, 46-73, 1993 (as "Social Justice and Universalism: In Defense of an Aristotelian Account of Human Functioning"), and in Douglas Tallack ed., Critical Theory: A Reader, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1995). 

"Justice for Women!" (review of Susan Moller Okin, Justice, Gender, and the Family), New York Review of Books October 8, 43-48, 1992. 

"'Only Grey Matter'? Richard Posner's Cost-Benefit Analysis of Sex" (review of Richard A. Posner,Sex and Reason), University of Chicago Law Review 59:4, 1689-734, 1992. 

"Venus in Robes" (review of Richard A. Posner, Sex and Reason), New Republic 206:16, 36-34, 1992. 

"Reply to Richard Eldridge" (to his review of Love's Knowledge), Arion 2:1, 198-207, 1992. 

Review of Mercy by Andrea Dworkin, Boston Review, April 1992. 

"The Softness of Reason: A Classical Case for Gay Studies", New Republic 207:3/4, 26-35, 1992. 

"Tragedy and Self-Sufficiency: Plato and Aristotle on Fear and Pity", in Julia Annas ed., Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy vol. 10, 1992 (shorter version in Amélie Oksenberg Rorty ed.,Essays on Aristotle's Poetics, Princeton UP, 1992). 

"Virtue Revived: Habit, Passion, Reflection in the Aristotelian Tradition", Times Literary Supplement July 3, 9-11, 1992. 

"Beatrice's 'Dante': Loving the Individual?", Apeiron 26:3/4, 161-78, 1993. 

"Comparing Virtues", Journal of Religious Ethics 21:2, 345-67, 1993. 

"Equity and Mercy", Philosophy & Public Affairs 22:2, 83-125, 1993 (reprinted in A. John Simmons et al. eds., Punishment, Princeton UP, 1995, in Jeffrie Murphy ed., Punishment and Rehabilitation, Wadsworth, 1995 (3rd edn.), and in Paul J. Heald ed., Literature and Legal Problem Solving: Law and Literature as Ethical Discourse, Carolina Academic Press, 1998). 

"Is Homosexual Conduct Wrong? A Philosophical Exchange" (with John Finnis), New Republic209:20, 1993. 

"Reply to Papers" (on The Fragility of Goodness, by Stephen Halliwell, Michael Wood, & David Robinson), Philosophical Investigations 16:1, 46-86 (and response by Robinson), 1993. 

"Serpents in the Soul: A Reading of Seneca's Medea", in Ted Cohen, Paul Guyer & Hilary Putnam eds., Pursuits of Reason: Essays in Honor of Stanley Cavell, Texas Tech UP, 1993 (reprinted in James J. Clauss & Sarah Iles Johnston eds., Medea:?Essays on Medea in Myth, Literature, Philosophy, and Art, Princeton UP, 1997, and revised as ch. 12 of The Therapy of Desire). 

"The Use and Abuse of Philosophy in Legal Education", Stanford Law Review 45:6, 1627-45, 1993. 

"The Ascent of Love: Plato, Spinoza and Proust", New Literary History 25:4, 925-49, 1994. 

"Desire and Therapeutics" (letter, on Richard Jenkyns' review of The Therapy of Desire), New York Times Book Review July 10, 31, 1994. 

"Divided We Stand" (review of William J. Bennett, The Book of Virtues), New Republic 210:2/3, 38-42, 1994. 

"Feminism and Philosophy" (review of Louise M. Anthony & Charlotte Witt eds., A Mind of One's Own: Feminist Essays on Reason and Objectivity), New York Review of Books October 20, 59-63, 1994. 

"The Oedipus Rex and the Ancient Unconscious", in Peter L. Rudnytsky & Ellen Handler Spitz eds.,Freud and Forbidden Knowledge, New York UP, 1994. 

"Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism", Boston Review 19:5, special issue on Nussbaum’s title paper, with 29 commentaries, and Nussbaum's response, 1994 (see Joshua Cohen ed., For Love of Country: A Debate on Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism, Beacon Press, 1996). 

"Poetic Justice: A Response to Nancy Sherman", Internationale Zeitschrift für Philosophie 2, 201-03, 220-38, 1994. 

"Pity and Mercy: Nietzsche's Stoicism", in Richard L. Schacht ed., Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality: Essays on Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals, University of California Press, 1994. 

"Platonic Love and Colorado Law: The Relevance of Ancient Greek Norms to Modern Sexual Controversies", Virginia Law Review 80:7, 1515-51 (inc. Appendix Four, co-authored with Kenneth Dover), 1994 (shorter version in Robert B. Louden and Paul Schollmeier eds., The Greeks and Us: Essays in Honor of Arthur W. H. Adkins, University of Chicago Press, 1997, with response by Richard Possner). 

"Skepticism about Practical Reason in Literature and the Law", Harvard Law Review 107:3, 714-44, 1994 (reprinted in Hans Friedrich Fulda & Rolf-Peter Horstmann eds., Vernunftbegriffe in der Moderne, Klett-Cotta, 1994). 

"The Transfiguration of Everyday Life", Metaphilosophy 25:4, 238-61, 1994. 

"Valuing Values: A Case for Reasoned Commitment", Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities 6, 197-217, 1994. 

"Erôs and the Wise: The Stoic Response to a Cultural Dilemma", in C.C.W. Taylor ed., Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy vol. 13, 1995 (reprinted in Juha Sihvola and Troels Engberg-Pedersen eds., The Emotions in Hellenistic Philosophy, Kluwer, 1998). 

"'Lawyer for Humanity': Theory and Practice in Ancient Political Thought", in Ian Shapiro & Judith Wagner DeCew eds., Theory and Practice: Nomos 37, New York UP, 1995. 

"Looking Good, Being Good" (review of Ann Hollander, Sex and Suits, Philippe Perrot, Fashioning the Bourgeoisie, and Gilles Lipovetsky, The Empire of Fashion), New Republic 212:1, 29-35, 1995. 

"Objectification", Philosophy & Public Affairs 24:4, 249-91, 1995 (reprinted in Alan Soble ed., The Philosophy of Sex, 1998 (2nd edn.)). 

"Poets as Judges: Judical Rhetoric and the Literary Imagination", University of Chicago Law Review 62:4, 1477-1519, 1995. 

"The Window: Knowledge of Other Minds in Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse", New Literary History 26:4, 1995 (shorter version in The British Tradition in 20th Century Philosophy, Hölder-Pickler-Tempsky, 1996; reprinted in Kenneth Dauber & Walter Jost eds., Ordinary Language Criticism: Literary Thinking After Cavell and Wittgenstein, Northwestern UP, 2003). 

Martha C. Nussbaum & Dan M. Kahan, "Emotions Weigh on the Scales of Justice: Perspectives on the Smith Trial", Los Angeles Times July 25, B9, 1995.

"Aristotle" and "Hylomorphism", in Jaegwon Kim & Ernest Sosa eds., A Companion to Metaphysics, Blackwell, 1995. 

"Aristotle on Human Nature and the Foundations of Ethics", in J.E.J. Altham & Ross Harrison eds.,World, Mind, and Ethics: Essays on the Ethical Philosophy of Bernard Williams, Cambridge UP, 1995.