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objects and learning design
Focus of our work on learning objects
We view learning objects as micro-contexts for learning that encapsulate content and appropriate interactivity. Each object is focused on one educational goal. The challenges in design are how to produce learning objects that are both reusable and pedagogically rich. We have applied principles from software engineering to ensure effective design for reuse. This has been combined with constructivist pedagogy to develop rich multimedia learning objects.
GLO Maker is an authoring tool for creating rich, interactive learning resources. It builds on the extensive experience of the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) in Reusable Learning Objects.
CETL in Reusable Learning Objects
LTRI was the lead partner in the HEFCE-funded CETL in Reusable Learning Objects (RLO-CETL). It was a collaborative CETL with the Universities of Cambridge and Nottingham. Funding began in March 2005 for 5 years. For more info go to: http://www.rlo-cetl.ac.uk/
We have evaluated the learning objects we developed and we have developed the concept of ‘generative learning objects’ (see GLO Maker above). Learning objects tend to be relatively fixed units that can be reused but not easily repurposed or adapted. We are developing an architecture that will enable learning object ‘instances’ to be generated from underlying designs. This makes learning objects much more powerful, as many adaptations of the same abstract object can be produced. This work explicitly focuses on the issue of reusable learning designs as the core generative component.
We are also developing learning objects for use on mobile devices. Prototypes have been developed for the PDA and for use on mobile phones, as these devices are more ubiquitous amongst our student population.
The learning objects represent one layer of reuse. We are also interested in the relationship and interfaces between this and other layers – the layer of information objects below, and the layer of lesson/task based ‘learning designs’ above. To this end we are a partner in the TLRP/ESRC/EPSRC funded project ‘Learning Design Support Environment (LDSE) for Lecturers’ [more info], and were also part of the JISC-funded project ‘A User-oriented Planner for Learning Analysis and Design’, led by Professor Diana Laurillard at the London Knowledge Lab [more info].
Our learning objects on Java programming have been used in a two-year project that has involved over 1000 students at two higher education institutions. They were used as part of a blended learning approach to improve success in introductory programming. The project, which was thoroughly evaluated, led to marked improvements in student pass rates and positive ratings by the students. This work has been reported extensively in journal and conference papers. More information on this project, including access to sample learning objects can be found at: http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/ltri/learningobjects
Bradley C., Haynes R., Cook J., Boyle T., & Smith C. (2009) Design and Development of Multimedia Learning Objects for Mobile Phones. In M. Ally (Ed) Mobile Learning: Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training. AU Press. Available online at: http://www.aupress.ca/index.php/books/120155
Boyle T. (2008). The design and development of learning objects for pedagogical impact. In Lockyer, l., Bennett, S. Agostinho S. and Harper B. (Eds) The Handbook of Research on Learning Design and Learning Objects: issues, applications and technologies.
Boyle, T. (2008). Generative Learning Objects: a more powerful basis for reuse and repurposing, presented at the AERA (American Educational Research Association) Conference, New York, March 25, 2008.
Greaves, L., Bradley, C., Cook, J. (2008). A Blended Learning Design to Support Student Learning. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2008 (pp. 4643-4651). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Boyle T., Ljubojevic D. and Baur E. (2007). An Approach and Tool for Adapting Learning Objects based on Underlying Learning Designs. ALTC 2007, Nottingham, September 2007.
Jones R. and Boyle T. (2007). Learning object patterns for programming. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects, Volume 3, pages 19-28. Accessible at: http://ijklo.org/Volume3/IJKLOv3p019-028Jones.pdf
Bradley, C., Haynes, R., Boyle, T., Cook, J. and Smith, C. (2007). Multimedia learning objects for mobiles. Full paper presented at IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2007, 5–7 July, Lisbon, Portugal.
Boyle, T., Cook, J., Windle, R., Wharrad, H., Leeder, D., & Alton, R. (2006). An agile method for developing learning objects, ASCILITE 2006, Sydney 3-6 December.
Boyle, T. (2006). The design and development of second generation learning objects. Invited presentation at ED-MEDIA, Florida, USA, June 26-30. See paper
Bradley, C., Haynes, R., & Boyle, T. (2005). Design for multimedia m-learning: lessons from two case studies. In Cook, J. and Whitelock, D. (Eds.) (2005). Exploring the Frontiers of E-Learning - Borders, Outposts and Migration. Research Proceedings of the 12th Association for Learning Technology Conference (ALT-C 2005). Held 6-8 September 2005, the University of Manchester, England. ISBN 0-9545870-4-9.
Bradley, C., and Boyle, T. (2004). The design, development and use of multimedia learning objects. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, Special Edition on Learning Objects, 13, 4, 371-389.
Bradley, C., & Boyle, T. (2004). Students' use of learning objects. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 6(2), Wake Forest University, USA, ISSN 1525-9102. Online: http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2004/2/01/index.asp
Boyle, T. (2003). Design principles for authoring dynamic, reusable learning objects. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 19(1), 46-58.
For more information on this work contact:
Last updated 14 October, 2010
interactive, resusable objects, multimedia, learning design